(Pallas) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 547. 1891.
Pallas, Reise Russ. Reich 1: 491, plate 2, fig. 1. 1771;
divari-cately branched or simple.
sessile (or sometimes narrowed into pseudopetiole); blade lanceolate-elliptic, lanceolate, or linear, flat, base cuneate.
with ± straight axes.
with thin, hooked spine adaxially at maturity.
Flowering late summer-fall. Saline habitats, coastal dunes, salt marshes, disturbed habitats, roadsides, fields; 0-1200 m; introduced; Alta., B.C.; Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Mass., Mont., Nev., N.Mex., N.Y., Oreg., S.Dak., Tex., Utah, Wash., Wyo.; Eurasia (e Europe, arid regions of Asia).
has been reported from southern Saskatchewan, but H. J. Scoggan (1978-1979, part 3) noted that this record possibly referred to
(Linnaeus) Schrader. Putative hybrids between
are reported from Utah (S. L. Welsh 1984). Such hybridization is extremely interesting because it has not been reported within the native ranges of those species in Eurasia. I have seen only one specimen that might represent such a hybrid. Its general habit resembles
(including pubescent leaves), but its perianth segments are very variable, with winglike, conic, or almost spinescent appendages.