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Pseudotsuga Carrière
DOUGLAS-FIR
Life   Plantae   Gymnospermae   Pinaceae

Pseudotsuga menziesii, whole tree - view up trunk
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pseudotsuga menziesii, whole tree - view up trunk

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Pseudotsuga menziesii, bark - of a large tree
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pseudotsuga menziesii, bark - of a large tree
Pseudotsuga menziesii, cone - female - mature open
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pseudotsuga menziesii, cone - female - mature open

Pseudotsuga menziesii, whole tree - view up trunk
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pseudotsuga menziesii, whole tree - view up trunk
Pseudotsuga menziesii, whole tree - view up trunk
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pseudotsuga menziesii, whole tree - view up trunk

Pseudotsuga menziesii, whole tree - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pseudotsuga menziesii, whole tree - general
Pseudotsuga menziesii, cone - female - mature open
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pseudotsuga menziesii, cone - female - mature open

Pseudotsuga menziesii, cone - female - mature open
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pseudotsuga menziesii, cone - female - mature open
Pseudotsuga menziesii, cone - female - closed
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pseudotsuga menziesii, cone - female - closed

Pseudotsuga menziesii, cone - female - mature open
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pseudotsuga menziesii, cone - female - mature open
Pseudotsuga menziesii, cone - male
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pseudotsuga menziesii, cone - male

Pseudotsuga menziesii, twig - showing attachment of needles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pseudotsuga menziesii, twig - showing attachment of needles
Pseudotsuga menziesii, twig - showing attachment of needles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pseudotsuga menziesii, twig - showing attachment of needles

Pseudotsuga menziesii, leaf - entire needle
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pseudotsuga menziesii, leaf - entire needle
Pseudotsuga menziesii, cone - female - mature open
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Pseudotsuga menziesii, cone - female - mature open

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Aphididae  Cinara ( @ AMNH_PBI (2)
Braconidae  Pauesia ( @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Xenostigmus bifasciatus @ AMNH_PBI (2)
Cicadidae  Platypedia putnami @ CSUC_TCN (3)
Miridae  Phytocoris nr @ UCR_ENT (3)
Reduviidae  Rasahus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Sinea @ AMNH_PBI (1)

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photo

The Queets fir, for 50 years one of the largest known Douglas-firs [C.J. Earle].

 

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Pseudotsuga

Carrière 1867

Common names

Douglas-fir ( Lipscomb 1993 ), Abeto de Douglas [Spanish].

Taxonomic notes

The genus was first described by Carrière with the grand Douglas-fir of North America, Pseudotsuga menziesii , as the type species (it had formerly been placed in Pinus and Abies ). Some 22 species and 3 varieties have been described, but many of these were discriminated by Flous (1937) on the basis of subtle distinctions in leaf anatomy and largely have not been upheld ( Farjon 1990 ). The existence of two North American species (one with two or more infraspecific taxa) is well established, and it is fairly clear that Japan has a single species. On the Asian mainland, with Farjon (2010) finds one species with three varieties, while Wu and Raven (1999) find three species. For the time being, I here accept Wu and Raven's interpretation, although with some reservations, not having seen the trees, or herbarium specimens. Note that Farjon would reduce P. forrestii to synonymy with P. sinensis var. sinensis (Wu and Raven distinguish the two according to the leaves; forrestii has leaves 3-5.5 cm long, and sinensis has shorter leaves), and designates a separate variety, P. sinensis Dode var. gaussenii (Flous) Silba 1990, that is not even mentioned by Wu and Raven, and which Farjon distinguishes as having reniform to broadly flabellate seed scales, much wider than long, with a truncate upper margin.

Thus this treatment presents six species:

Description

Evergreen trees. Bark initially smooth with transverse resin blisters, with age becoming reddish brown, thick and corky, deeply fissured into scaly ridges or flaking. Branches often pendulous, irregularly whorled; epicormic branching common on late successional trees. Short (spur) shoots absent; leaf scars transversely elliptic, slightly raised proximally but essentially flush with twig distally (see figure at left). Buds elongate, not or slightly resinous, apex acute. Leaves borne singly, persisting 6-8 years, alternate, short-stalked, linear, flat, green and grooved above, with 2 white stomatal bands each containing 5-8 lines of stomata beneath; 2 marginal resin ducts and 1 vascular bundle. Cones borne on year-old twigs. Pollen cones axillary, cylindric. Seed cones maturing first season, terminal on short branchlets, consisting of numerous spirally arranged scales, each scale 2-ovuled. Mature cones shed whole, deflexed or pendent from a 2-10 mm long peduncle, ellipsoid, ovoid, or cylindric, lacking apophysis and umbo; scales persistent, apex rounded; bracts ± exserted, apex 3-lobed with the middle lobe long and narrow. Seeds winged; cotyledons 2-12. x =12, 13 ( Lipscomb 1993 , Li 1975 , and pers. obs.).

Distribution and Ecology

Canada, USA, Mexico, Japan and China.

Big tree

See P. menziesii var. menziesii .

Oldest

See P. menziesii var. menziesii .

Dendrochronology

There has been a great deal of work done with P. menziesii and a much smaller amount with P. macrocarpa . I have not looked into the literature on the Asian species.

Ethnobotany

Observations

P. menziesii is one of commonest trees in western North America, an agroforestry species and invasive weed in New Zealand, a common ornamental and agroforestry species in Europe, and easily found in most of the rest of the world's temperate climate zones. The other species are of relatively limited occurrence and are seldom used as ornamentals.

Remarks

The genus name is derived from the Greek pseudo , false, and the Japanese tsuga , hemlock ( Lipscomb 1993 ).

Citations

Flous, F. 1937. Révision du genre Pseudotsuga. Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Toulouse 71: 33-164.

See also

Little, E.L. Jr. 1952. The genus Pseudotsuga (Douglas-fir) in North America. Leafl. W. Bot. 6: 181-198.

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Last Modified 2015-01-24

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https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PSEUD7 ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=PSEUD7
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You are here: Home / Plant Profile

Pseudotsuga Carrière
Douglas-fir

Image of Pseudotsuga

General Information
Symbol: PSEUD7
Group: Gymnosperm
Family: Pinaceae
Duration:  
Growth Habit :  
Native Status : CAN   N
L48   N
Data Source and Documentation
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green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Pseudotsuga thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

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Synonyms

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Coniferophyta – Conifers
Class Pinopsida
Order Pinales
Family Pinaceae – Pine family
Genus Pseudotsuga Carri̬re РDouglas-fir

Subordinate Taxa

The Plants Database includes the following 2 species of Pseudotsuga . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Plant is native (blue) Native Plant is introduced Introduced Plant is introduced Native and Introduced Related taxa legend Distribution of <i>
Pseudotsuga macrocarpa</i>
(Vasey) Mayr
Pseudotsuga macrocarpa
bigcone Douglas-fir Distribution of <i>
Pseudotsuga menziesii</i>
(Mirb.) Franco
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Douglas-fir

Legal Status

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
Flora of North America (PSEUD7)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (PSEUD7)
Jepson Interchange (University of California - Berkeley) (PSEUD7)
Related Websites
USDA FS Softwoods of North America (PSEUD7)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover


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